Tall buildings provide space for living and working. Elevators enable people to use this space. Consequently, building and elevator planning should complement each other. Layered Zoning of buildings and multi-deck elevators enable efficient buildings and optimal elevator performance.
The measurable qualities, which define the efficiency of tall buildings, are the total of their rentable areas and the service qualities of their vertical transportation systems.
Chapter H: “Planning tall buildings and groups of elevators” and the revised mathematical model of the new series of workbooks prove that the combination of multi-deck cars and buildings with Layered Zoning is the ultimate solution for groups of elevators in High and Low Rise buildings. This combination enables groups to reduce numbers of stops.
The efficiency of groups with multi-deck cars improves in conjunction with increasing traffic densities. This is the opposite of groups with single-deck cars, their efficiency is worst during heaviest traffic conditions. The revised series of workbooks introduce an additional variable: number of car decks. The insights and data revealed by the revised mathematical model were a great surprise. They added a new dimension to group planning: optimal rentable floor areas. Groups with multi-deck cars, which simultaneously serve two or more building sub-zones, enable a number of major advantages:
- Huge space savings maximize rentable areas.
- Enable tall buildings, without Sky Lobbies.
- Longer travel distances increase average car speeds.
- Best possible time-dependent service qualities, short travel times.
- Efficient group configurations for Low- and High Rise buildings.
Stress tests enable architects to assess the performance data of any group, i.e. facilitate comparison of the efficiency and performance of alternative groups and building plans during the first planning phase of a new building.
The efficiency of Low Rise groups with double-deck cars is remarkable. Refer to workbook MD-SIM14 for an example how Layered Zoning and double-deck cars affect performance.
Single-deck cars limit building heights because the maximum number of floors for a group of single-deck cars is approximately 15. This implies that the maximum height of a building with four single-deck groups is usually less than 60 floors because space requirements prohibit additional groups. Existing super tall buildings confirm this planning problem of tall buildings. They all feature Sky Lobbies.
Buildings without Sky Lobbies are safer, because Sky Lobbies are an evacuation “bottleneck”. Direct evacuation is faster and safer. The door-to-door flight time (ddft) of cars with a contract speed of 10 m/s from level 400 meter to floor zero is 55.6 seconds. For 500 meter, the ddft is 65.6 seconds etc.
Layered Zoning implies that tenants, who require two or more floors, are aware that an adjacent sub-zone floor is positioned two or more floors higher or lower. This is acceptable because the extra travel time of, for example, a double-deck car to an adjacent sub-zone floor is only 1.5 seconds longer than the travel time of a single-deck car to an adjacent floor. For triple-deck cars, this extra is 2.5 seconds. Shorter waiting times compensate these additional time “costs”. The advantages of multi-deck groups far outweigh their minor disadvantages.
Multi-deck groups separate traffic flows of incoming- and outgoing persons with pairs of escalators at the building entrance levels. Building populations will quickly adopt these systems, as they did for destination entry 30 years ago. Chapter H and the new series of workbooks explain in detail the logic, functionality and efficiency of groups with multi-deck cars.
Our planet, climate and people demand efficiency and the optimal use of resources. Efficient groups enable efficient buildings, optimize the waiting- and travel times of passengers. Moreover, they reduce energy and space requirements.